Paramorphisms And Dysmorphisms: What They Are And How To Correct Them

The postural alterations that characterize the school age, that is when the spinal column is still in the development phase, can lead to significant disturbances resulting in an incorrect structuring of the body scheme. In this article we will see how to prevent paramorphisms and dimorphisms to ensure healthy and harmonious growth for the little ones.

The spine, also called the backbone or rachis, is the supporting pillar of our body and is made up of a sequence of very flexible and resistant vertebrae that allow us to move. But, more importantly, it is thanks to its natural physiological curves that we are able to walk in an upright position, a characteristic that distinguishes humans from animals. Already from this brief preface it is easy to understand how important it is to learn how to take care of them from an early age to ensure a healthy and harmonious growth.
This is because, during the pediatric and adolescent age, it is common for spinal changes to occur due to incorrect movements over time, further accentuated by the hormonal alterations that characterize the growth phase and lifestyle, which tend to be increasingly sedentary. Promptly identifying these postural alterations is essential to implement an adequate therapeutic treatment aimed at correcting them and preventing them from evolving into more serious and debilitating deformations.

But how to recognize the alarm bells that can indicate the presence of any paramorphisms and dysmorphisms in children? And what are the most frequent morphological alterations in developmental age? In the next paragraphs we will try to answer these and other questions.

What is the correct posture?

The postural system is a complex structure that involves the spinal cord, muscles, joints and mouth parts. All the information coming from these parts of the body is processed by the central nervous system to send corrective messages based on the posture assumed by the body.

To understand what the right position is, in addition to the skeletal part, it is also important to take into account the muscle mass, which should give a harmonious appearance to the body structure. On the contrary, adopting an incorrect posture can cause tension and pain which, in the long run, can lead to changes in the spine and various musculoskeletal disorders, with manifestations ranging from neck pain to headache, up to back pain and back pain.

Most of the time, the causes of these vicious postural attitudes are to be found in everyday life, when for example a child spends a lot of time sitting in front of the computer or on the sofa with his head bowed to use the smartphone or tablet. Although often these are mild alterations, which can be corrected by carrying out adequate physical activity, the only truly effective means of preventing them from turning into much more serious physical deformations, there is always a good prevention protocol that educates children to adopt. correct posture and regular movement.

What are paramorphisms and dysmorphisms?

The term ” paramorphism ” refers to all those incorrect postural attitudes, generally caused by muscle-tendon or joint problems, which can be corrected with physiotherapy or postural gymnastics because they involve flexible parts of the body, such as muscles and discs.

If not treated promptly, the paramorphisms risk leading to dysmorphisms which, as the term itself suggests, are “chronic alterations” of the morphology that can lead, in the most serious cases, to an anatomical and functional modification with a tendentially worsening course.

What is the difference?

The alterations of the spinal column differ mainly in the degree of severity of the postural attitudes adopted. The causes of paramorphism are rickets, dietary deficiencies, hypotonic muscles due to a too sedentary lifestyle and, obviously, the assumption of unsuitable positions.

These alterations are therefore correctable with general strengthening, postural gymnastics exercises and physiotherapy. The dysmorphia , however, is more difficult to correct, generally requiring the use of braces, braces and sometimes even surgery.

What are the most common paramorphisms?

The main paramorphisms of the spinal column are:

♦ curved back: typical of the school age, it consists of a kyphotic attitude of the back which, if not corrected in time, can become stable and unchangeable. Depending on the section of the spine concerned, it can be dorsal, back-lumbar or total.

♦ flat back: it is characterized by the flattening of the vertebral curves with consequent verticalization of the pelvis, which is more evident in subjects suffering from rickets.

♦ lumbar hyperlordosis: this is an accentuation of the lumbar physiological curve that clinically manifests itself with excessively backward buttocks and abdomen protracted forward.

♦ winged shoulder blades: a condition closely linked to posture and usually associated with a position of the shoulders forward and the arms rotated inward.

♦ scoliotic attitude: in addition to being the most widespread form of paramorphism in developmental age, it is also the most feared due to the rapidity in which it can evolve towards irreversible deteriorating changes. This alteration involves a lateral deviation of the vertebral column, with consequent loss of verticality of the back.

How many types of dysformisms are there?

As already mentioned, dysformism is a chronic morphological alteration that determines a deviation of the physiological curves of the spine , therefore it does not recede easily but tends to get worse. These alterations can be classified into symmetrical and asymmetrical: the former create a difference in height on the sagittal anatomical plane, while the latter occur on the frontal one.

In some cases, the dysformism can also affect the lower limbs, as in the case of the flat foot, a lowering of the plantar vault that prevents the foot from carrying out its shock-absorbing function, and the recurvated knee which is an anomaly characterized by hyperextension of the knee over five degrees, bringing the leg to assume the typical parenthesis shape.

How are defects in posture prevented?

The first and most effective preventive action against paramorphisms and dysmorphisms consists in observing the postural habits of your children, both sitting and standing, to identify any defects in posture early and make sure that they maintain a straight position of the spine when, for for example, they do their homework or play with electronic devices.

Both at school and in their free time it is important that children are encouraged to carry out regular physical activity, with appropriate shoes and a sports bra suitable for teenagers. Movement during the growth phases, in addition to preventing obesity and overweight (which are among the main risk factors for paraformism), also helps to strengthen the muscles of the back counterbalancing any postural defects due to incorrect habits and postures.

How to cure dysformism?

In case of mild dysmorphism it is advisable to promptly contact an orthopedist who, after having assessed the extent of the disorder, may prescribe physiotherapy sessions to improve posture (which otherwise would risk worsening), or the use of orthopedic aids to wear in the course of daily activities – such as braces and braces – in order to “forcibly” correct the position of the body.

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